Tuesday, 8 October 2013


We started this weeks session by getting into small groups of around six people. 

Next, we reviewed the six print related categories covered in last weeks session, writing down our view of each categories definition. Moreover, we also included some examples of techniques or items that fall within each classification. 

Below is an image of the group list.

Next, we reviewed the list as a class, discussing in more detail the specifics of each category;


  • FORMAT - Scale + Size + working with that.
  • COLOUR - Colour modes, Hues, Function etc. Effects the process and production.
  • PRODUCTION - The actual making of it.
  • PROCESS - The method used.
  • FINISHING - Production + Process.
  • STOCK - Materials used - Substrates for printing/considerations for example; Cost. 

All of the above processes are interlinked, when successfully designing for print all categories MUST BE CONSIDERED.

Finally, the exercise enabled us to re-discuss each topic in a group which helped to create an informed understanding of the print categories and how they relate to each other. Furthermore, the group discussions held while creating the list helped clear up any confusion about the classification of each category.

After a short break we started the second half of the session. In last weeks lesson we were asked to bring in 5 examples of print, this could be anything that had undergone part of the print process.

Next, each group was asked to arrange the examples into groups reflecting the print process categories, starting with 'Format' we arranged our examples into small piles. 


Colour groupings.


Finally, we organised the items into order of cost, when working out the cost we had to take into consideration all the print categories as they all have a knock on effect on the cost of the job.

While arranging the examples into groups various discussions arose regarding topics such as; 

  • If an example fit that group.
  • Cost of printing
  • How different techniques are used.

Finally, we reviewed the exercise and identified print related things that we want to know more about.

  • Research into the finishing technique spot varnishing.
  • Review how this techniques is done.
  • Research into how tissue paper is printed on.



Spot Varnish.

I started by finding out what a spot varnish is;

Varnish is basically clear ink and can be gloss, satin or matte. A flood varnish covers the entire printed page for protection or sheen. A spot varnish allows you to highlight specific areas of a printed piece and adds shine and depth to specific elements on the page such as a logo or image. Varnishes are also applied on-press, but they are heavier-bodied and can be applied (like inks) to only certain areas (spot varnish). A plate must be created to apply a spot varnish, so artwork is necessary.                                                                                            Information link 

Next, I found out how the technique is applied;

As mentioned above the varnish itself shares similar properties as an ink; 'Varnish is basically clear ink'. Therefore, the technique can be applied using traditional printing techniques such as a silk-screen print, where the varnish is pushed through a screen directly onto the stock. Moreover, while collecting my research I also came across examples of spot varnishes being applied digitally using a printer, this helps with commercial projects that require a large quantity of units producing.

The video below shows a spot varnish to a large limited addition artist print, the printers use a commercial screen-printing machine to apply the varnish to the piece.

Finally, I looked at the pro's and con's of using the printing technique.


  • Instant visual impact.
  • Provides ink protection.
  • Adds an up market, quality feel to the product.
  • Multi-sensory impact
  • Adds vibrancy to the colours

  • CON'S

    • Added cost to the print job.
    • If printed over a crease in a document it will crack in the same way ink does.
    • Application of the technique adds time to print job.


    Below are a list of useful print technical terms I was unfamiliar with, I have highlighted specific information that is relevant to the print production brief;

    • Acid-free Paper
    Papermade from pulp containing little or no acid so it resists deterioration from age. Also called alkaline paper, archival paper, neutral pH paper, permanent paper and thesis paper.
    • Acid Resist
    An acid-proof protective coating applied to metal plates prior to etching.
    • Anodized Plate
    An offset printing plate having a treated surface in order to reduce wear for extended use.
    • Anti-offset Powder
    Fine powder lightly sprayed over the printed surface of coated paper as sheets leave a press. Also called dust, offset powder, powder and spray powder.
    • Aqueous Coating
    Coating in a water base and applied like ink by a printing press to protect and enhance the printing underneath.
    • Back Up
    (1) To print on the second side of a sheet already printed on one side. (2) To adjust an image on one side of a sheet so that it aligns back-to-back with an image on the other side.
    • Bindery
    Usually a department within a printing company responsible for collating, folding and trimming various printing projects.
    • Blanket
    Rubber-coated pad, mounted on a cylinder of an offset press, that receives the inked image from the plate and transfers it to the surface to be printed.
    • Blind Folio
    A page number not printed on the page. (In the book arena, a blank page traditionally does not print a page number.)
    • Blind Image
    Image debossed, embossed or stamped, but not printed with ink or foil.
    • Blocking
    Sticking together of printed sheets causing damage when the surfaces are separated.
    • Blueline
    Prepress photographic proof made from stripped negatives where all colors show as blue images on white paper. Because 'blueline' is a generic term for proofs made from a variety of materials having identical purposes and similar appearances, it may also be called a blackprint, blue, blueprint, brownline, brownprint, diazo, dyeline, ozalid, position proof, silverprint, Dylux and VanDyke.
    • Bond paper
    Category of paper commonly used for writing, printing and photocopying. Also called business paper, communication paper, correspondence paper and writing paper.
    • Book Block
    Folded signatures gathered, sewn and trimmed, but not yet covered.
    • Bromide
    A photographic print created on bromide paper.
    • Bronzing
    The effect produced by dusting wet ink after printing and using a metallic powder.
    • Burst Perfect Bind
    To bind by forcing glue into notches along the spines of gathered signatures before affixing a paper cover. Also called burst bind, notch bind and slotted bind.
    • Butt Register
    Register where ink colors meet precisely without overlapping or allowing space between, as compared to lap register. Also called butt fit and kiss register.

    • Carbonless Paper
    Paper coated with chemicals that enable transfer of images from one sheet to another with pressure from writing or typing.
    • Case
    Covers and spine that, as a unit, enclose the pages of a casebound book.
    • Case Bind
    To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of binder board covered with fabric, plastic or leather. Also called cloth bind, edition bind, hard bind and hard cover.
    • Cast-coated Paper
    High gloss, coated paper made by pressing the paper against a polished, hot, metal drum while the coating is still wet.
    • Chain Dot
    (1) Alternate term for elliptical dot, so called because midtone dots touch at two points, so look like links in a chain. (2) Generic term for any midtone dots whose corners touch.
    • Chalking
    Deterioration of a printed image caused by ink that absorbs into paper too fast or has long exposure to sun, and wind making printed images look dusty. Also called crocking.
    • Choke
    Technique of slightly reducing the size of an image to create a hairline trap or to outline. Also called shrink and skinny.
    • Chrome
    Strength of a color as compared to how close it seems to neutral gray. Also called depth, intensity, purity and saturation.
    • Collate
    To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested.
    • Collating Marks
    Mostly in the book arena, specific marks on the back of signatures indicating exact position in the collating stage.

    • Color Cast

    Unwanted color affecting an entire image or portion of an image.

    • Color Control Bar

    Strip of small blocks of color on a proof or press sheet to help evaluate features such as density and dot gain. Also called color bar, color guide and standard offset color bar.
    • Color Gamut
    The entire range of hues possible to reproduce using a specific device, such as a computer screen, or system, such as four-color process printing.
    • Color Sequence
    Order in which inks are printed. Also called laydown sequence and rotation.
    • Color Shift
    Change in image color resulting from changes in register, ink densities or dot gain during four-color process printing.
    • Complementary Flat(s)
    The second or additional flat(s) used when making composite film or for two or more burns on one printing plate.
    • Composite Art
    Mechanical on which copy for reproduction in all colors appears on only one surface, not separated onto overlays. Composite art has a tissue overlay with instructions that indicate color breaks.
    • Composite Film
    Film made by combining images from two or more pieces of working film onto one film for making one plate.
    • Composite Proof
    Proof of color separations in position with graphics and type. Also called final proof, imposition proof and stripping proof.
    • Condition
    To keep paper in the pressroom for a few hours or days before printing so that its moisture level and temperature equal that in the pressroom. Also called cure, mature and season.

    • Contact Platemaker

    Device with lights, timing mechanism and vacuum frame used to make contact prints, duplicate film, proofs and plates. Also called platemaker and vacuum frame.
    • Continuous-tone Copy
    All photographs and those illustrations having a range of shades not made up of dots, as compared to line copy or halftones. Abbreviated contone.
    • Coverage
    Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate. Ink coverage is usually expressed as light, medium or heavy.
    • Crash
    Coarse cloth embedded in the glue along the spine of a book to increase strength of binding. Also called gauze, mull and scrim.
    • Creep
    Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly beyond outside pages. Also called feathering, outpush, push out and thrust. See also Shingling.
    • Cure
    To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure good adhesion and prevent setoff.
    • Cutting Die
    Usually a custom ordered item to trim specific and unusual sized printing projects.
    • Deckle Edge
    Edge of paper left ragged as it comes from the papermaking machine instead of being cleanly cut. Also called feather edge.
    • Densitometer
    Instrument used to measure density. Reflection densitometers measure light reflected from paper and other surfaces; transmission densitometers measure light transmitted through film and other materials.
    • Density
    (1) Regarding ink, the relative thickness of a layer of printed ink. (2) Regarding color, the relative ability of a color to absorb light reflected from it or block light passing through it. (3) Regarding paper, the relative tightness or looseness of fibers.
    • Density Range
    Difference between the darkest and lightest areas of copy. Also called contrast ratio, copy range and tonal range.
    • Digital Dot
    Dot created by a computer and printed out by a laser printer or imagesetter. Digital dots are uniform in size, as compared to halftone dots that vary in size.
    • Dot Gain
    Phenomenon of halftone dots printing larger on paper than they are on films or plates, reducing detail and lowering contrast. Also called dot growth, dot spread and press gain.
    • Dot Size
    Relative size of halftone dots as compared to dots of the screen ruling being used. There is no unit of measurement to express dot size. Dots are too large, too small or correct only in comparison to what the viewer finds attractive.
    • Double Black Duotone
    Duotone printed from two halftones, one shot for highlights and the other shot for midtones and shadows.
    • Double Bump
    To print a single image twice so it has two layers of ink.
    • Double Dot Halftone
    Halftone double burned onto one plate from two halftones, one shot for shadows, the second shot for midtones and highlights.
    • Drill
    In the printing arena, to drill a whole in a printed matter.
    • Dry Back
    Phenomenon of printed ink colors becoming less dense as the ink dries.
    • Dry Offset
    Using metal plates in the printing process, which are etched to .15mm (.0006 in) creating a right reading plate, printed on the offset blanket transferring to paper without the use of water.
    • Dry Trap
    To print over dry ink, as compared to wet trap.
    • Duotone
    Black-and-white photograph reproduced using two halftone negatives, each shot to emphasize different tonal values in the original.
    • Duplex Paper
    Thick paper made by pasting highlights together two thinner sheets, usually of different colors. Also called double-faced paper and two-tone paper.
    • Duplicator
    Offset press made for quick printing.
    • Emulsion
    Casting of light-sensitive chemicals on papers, films, printing plates and stencils.
    • Emulsion Down/Emulsion Up
    Film whose emulsion side faces down (away from the viewer) or up (toward the viewer) when ready to make a plate or stencil. Abbreviated ED, EU. Also called E up/down and face down/face up.
    • End Sheet
    Sheet that attaches the inside pages of a case bound book to its cover. Also called pastedown or end papers.
    • EP
    Abbreviation for envelope.
    • Equivalent Paper
    Paper that is not the brand specified, but looks, prints and may cost the same. . Also called comparable stock.
    • Face
    Edge of a bound publication opposite the spine. Also called foredge. Also, an abbreviation for typeface referring to a family of a general style.
    • Felt Finish
    Soft woven pattern in text paper.
    • Felt Side
    Side of the paper that was not in contact with the Fourdrinier wire during papermaking, as compared to wire side.
    • Fifth Color
    Ink color used in addition to the four needed by four-color process.
    • Film Laminate
    Thin sheet of plastic bonded to a printed product for protection or increased gloss.
    • Flat Color
    (1) Any color created by printing only one ink, as compared to a color created by printing four-color process. Also called block color and spot color. (2) color that seems weak or lifeless.
    • Flat Size
    Size of product after printing and trimming, but before folding, as compared to finished size.
    • Flood
    To print a sheet completely with an ink or varnish. flooding with ink is also called painting the sheet.
    • Flush Cover
    Cover trimmed to the same size as inside pages, as compared to overhang cover. Also called cut flush
    • Foil Emboss
    To foil stamp and emboss an image. Also called heat stamp.
    • Foil Stamp
    Method of printing that releases foil from its backing when stamped with the heated die. Also called block print, hot foil stamp and stamp.
    • Foldout
    Gatefold sheet bound into a publication, often used for a map or chart. Also called gatefold and pullout.
    • Folio (page number)
    The actual page number in a publication.

    • Form Roller(s)
    Roller(s) that come in contact with the printing plate, bringing it ink or water.

    • French Fold
    A printed sheet, printed one side only, folded with two right angle folds to form a four page uncut section.
    • Full-range Halftone
    Halftone ranging from 0 percent coverage in its highlights to 100 percent coverage in its shadows.
    • Gang
    (1) To halftone or separate more than one image in only one exposure. (2) To reproduce two or more different printed products simultaneously on one sheet of paper during one press run. Also called combination run.
    • Ghost Halftone
    Normal halftone whose density has been reduced to produce a very faint image.
    • Ghosting
    (1) Phenomenon of a faint image appearing on a printed sheet where it was not intended to appear. Chemical ghosting refers to the transfer of the faint image from the front of one sheet to the back of another sheet. Mechanical ghosting refers to the faint image appearing as a repeat of an image on the same side of the sheet. (2) Phenomenon of printed image appearing too light because of ink starvation.
    • Gilding
    Mostly in the book arena, gold leafing the edges of a book.
    • Gloss Ink
    Ink used and printed on coated stock (mostly litho and letterpress) such as the ink will dry without penetration.
    • Grammage
    Basis weight of paper in grams per square meter (gsm).
    • Gravure
    Method of printing using metal cylinders etched with millions of tiny wells that hold ink.
    • Gray Scale
    Strip of gray values ranging from white to black. Used by process camera and scanner operators to calibrate exposure times for film and plates. Also called step wedge.
    • GSM
    The unit of measurement for paper weight (grams per square meter).
    • Half-scale Black
    Black separation made to have dots only in the shadows and midtones, as compared to full-scale black and skeleton black.
    • Halo Effect
    Faint shadow sometimes surrounding halftone dots printed. Also called halation. The halo itself is also called a fringe.
    • Hard Dots
    Halftone dots with no halos or soft edges, as compared to soft dots.
    • Heat-set Web
    Web press equipped with an oven to dry ink, thus able to print coated paper.
    • Hickey
    Spot or imperfection in printing, most visible in areas of heavy ink coverage, caused by dirt on the plate or blanket. Also called bulls eye and fish eye.
    • High-fidelity Color
    Color reproduced using six, eight or twelve separations, as compared to four-color process.
    • High-key Photo
    Photo whose most important details appear in the highlights.
    • Highlights
    Lightest portions of a photograph or halftone, as compared to midtones and shadows.
    • Hot Spot
    Printing defect caused when a piece of dirt or an air bubble caused incomplete draw-down during contact platemaking, leaving an area of weak ink coverage or visible dot gain.
    • Imposition
    Arrangement of pages on mechanicals or flats so they will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are folded and bound.
    • Impression
    (1) Referring to an ink color, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through a printing unit. (2) Referring to speed of a press, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through the press.
    • Impression Cylinder
    Cylinder, on a press, that pushes paper against the plate or blanket, thus forming the image. Also called impression roller.
    • Imprint
    To print new copy on a previously printed sheet, such as imprinting an employee's name on business cards. Also called surprint.
    • Ink Balance
    Relationship of the densities and dot gains of process inks to each other and to a standard density of neutral gray
    • Ink Holdout
    Characteristic of paper that prevents it from absorbing ink, thus allowing ink to dry on the surface of the paper. Also called holdout.
    • Inserts
    Within a publication, an additional item positioned into the publication loose (not bound in).
    • Intaglio Printing
    Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces with two levels, having inked areas lower than noninked areas. Gravure and engraving are the most common forms of intaglio. Also called recess printing.
    • Key
    (1) The screw that controls ink flow from the ink fountain of a printing press. (2) To relate loose pieces of copy to their positions on a layout or mechanical using a system of numbers or letters. (3) Alternate term for the color black, as in 'key plate.'
    • Keylines
    Lines on a mechanical or negative showing the exact size, shape and location of photographs or other graphic elements. Also called holding lines.
    • Key Negative or Plate
    Negative or plate that prints the most detail, thus whose image guides the register of images from other plates. Also called key printer.
    • Kiss Impression
    Lightest possible impression that will transfer ink to a Substrate.
    • Laid Finish
    Finish on bond or text paper on which grids of parallel lines simulate the surface of handmade paper. Laid lines are close together and run against the grain; chain lines are farther apart and run with the grain.
    • Laminate
    A thin transparent plastic sheet (coating) applied to usually a thick stock (covers, post cards, etc.) providing protection against liquid and heavy use, and usually accents existing color, providing a glossy (or lens) effect.
    • Laser-imprintable Ink
    Ink that will not fade or blister as the paper on which it is printed is used in a laser printer.
    • Linen Finish
    Embossed finish on text paper that simulates the pattern of linen cloth.
    • Lithography
    Method of printing using plates whose image areas attract ink and whose nonimage areas repel ink. Nonimage areas may be coated with water to repel the oily ink or may have a surface, such as silicon, that repels ink.
    • Looseleaf
    Binding method allowing insertion and removal of pages in a publication (e.g., trim-4-drill-3).
    • Loose Proof
    Proof of a halftone or color separation that is not assembled with other elements from a page, as compared to composite proof. Also called first proof, random proof, scatter proof and show-color proof.
    • Machine Glazed (MG)
    Paper holding a high-gloss finish only on one side.
    • Manuscript (MS)
    An author's original form of work (hand written, typed or on disk) submitted for publication.
    • Mechanical Bind
    To bind using a comb, coil, ring binder, post or any other technique not requiring gluing, sewing or stitching.
    • Mechanical Separation
    Color breaks made on the mechanical using a separate overlay for each color to be printed.
    • Mechanical Tint
    Lines or patterns formed with dots creating artwork for reproduction.
    • Midtones
    In a photograph or illustration, tones created by dots between 30 percent and 70 percent of coverage, as compared to highlights and shadows.
    • Misting
    Phenomenon of droplets of ink being thrown off the roller train. Also called flying ink.
    • Moire
    Undesirable pattern resulting when halftones and screen tints are made with improperly aligned screens, or when a pattern in a photo, such as a plaid, interfaces with a halftone dot pattern.
    • Mottle
    Spotty, uneven ink absorption. Also called sinkage. A mottled image may be called mealy.
    • Mull
    A specific type of glue used for books binding and personal pads needing strength.
    • Nested
    Signatures assembled inside one another in the proper sequence for binding, as compared to gathered. Also called inset.
    • Nipping
    In the book binding process, a stage where air is expelled from it's contents at the sewing stage.
    • Nonheatset Web
    Web press without a drying oven, thus not able to print on coated paper. Also called cold-set web and open web.
    • Nonimpact Printing
    Printing using lasers, ions, ink jets or heat to transfer images to paper.
    • Offset Printing
    Printing technique that transfers ink from a plate to a blanket to paper instead of directly from plate to paper.
    • Outline Halftone
    Halftone in which background has been removed or replaced to isolate or silhouette the main image. Also called knockout halftone and silhouette halftone.
    • Overlay
    Layer of material taped to a mechanical, photo or proof. Acetate overlays are used to separate colors by having some type or art on them instead of on the mounting board. Tissue overlays are used to carry instructions about the underlying copy and to protect the base art.
    • Overlay Proof
    Color proof consisting of polyester sheets laid on top of each other with their image in register, as compared to integral proof. Each sheet represents the image to be printed in one color. Also called celluloid proof and layered proof.
    • Overprint
    To print one image over a previously printed image, such as printing type over a screen tint. Also called surprint.
    • Over Run
    Additional printed matter beyond order. Overage policy varies in the printing industry. Advance questions avoid blind knowledge.
    • Pagination
    In the book arena, the numbering of pages.
    • Painted Sheet
    Sheet printed with ink edge to edge, as compared to spot color. The painted sheet refers to the final product, not the press sheet, and means that 100 percent coverage results from bleeds off all four sides.
    • Panel
    One page of a brochure, such as one panel of a rack brochure. One panel is on one side of the paper. A letter-folded sheet has six panels, not three.
    • PE
    Proofreader mark meaning printer error and showing a mistake by a typesetter, prepress service or printer as compared to an error by the customer.
    • Perf Marks
    On a "dummy" marking where the perforation is to occur.
    • Perforating
    Taking place on a press or a binder machine, creating a line of small dotted wholes for the purpose of tearing-off a part of a printed matter (usually straight lines, vertical or horizontal).
    • Pinholing
    Small holes (unwanted) in printed areas because of a variety of reasons.
    • PMS
    Obsolete reference to Pantone Matching System. The correct trade name of the colors in the Pantone Matching System is Pantone colors, not PMS Colors.
    • PMT
    Abbreviation for photomechanical transfer.
    • Post Bind
    To bind using a screw and post inserted through a hole in a pile of loose sheets.
    • Quarto
    (1) Sheet folded twice, making pages one-fourth the size of the original sheet. A quarto makes an 8-page signature. (2) Book made from quarto sheets, traditionally measuring about 9' x 12'.
    • Rainbow Fountain
    Technique of putting ink colors next to each other in the same ink fountain and oscillating the ink rollers to make the colors merge where they touch, producing a rainbow effect.
    • Relief Printing
    Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces with two levels having inked areas higher than noninked areas. Relief printing includes block printing, flexography and letter press.
    • Repeatability
    Ability of a device, such as an imagesetter, to produce film or plates that yield images in register.
    • Reverse
    Type, graphic or illustration reproduced by printing ink around its outline, thus allowing the underlying color or paper to show through and form the image. The image 'reverses out' of the ink color. Also called knockout and liftout.
    • Ruleup
    Map or drawing given by a printer to a stripper showing how a printing job must be imposed using a specific press and sheet size. Also called press layout, printer's layout and ruleout.
    • Satin Finish
    Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper
    • Screen Ruling
    Number of rows or lines of dots per inch or centimeter in a screen for making a screen tint or halftone. Also called line count, ruling, screen frequency, screen size and screen value.
    • Separations
    Usually in the four-color process arena, separate film holding qimages of one specific color per piece of film. Black, Cyan, Magenta and Yellow. Can also separate specific PMS colors through film.
    • Serigraphic Printing
    Printing method whose image carriers are woven fabric, plastic or metal that allow ink to pass through some portions and block ink from passing through other portions. Serigraphic printing includes screen and mimeograph.
    • Soft Dots
    Halftones dots with halos.
    • Soy-based Inks
    Inks using vegetable oils instead of petroleum products as pigment vehicles, thus are easier on the environment.
    • Spectrophotometer
    Instrument used to measure the index of refraction of color.
    • String Score
    Score created by pressing a string against paper, as compared to scoring using a metal edge.
    • Stumping (Blocking)
    In the book arena, hot die, foil or other means in creating an image on a case bound book.
    • Substrate
    Any surface or material on which printing is done.
    • Target Ink Densities
    Densities of the four process inks as recommended for various printing processes and grades of paper. See also Total Area Coverage.
    • Thermography
    Method of printing using colorless resin powder that takes on the color of underlying ink. Also called raised printing.
    • Tip In
    Usually in the book arena, adding an additional page(s) beyond the normal process (separate insertion).
    • Tone Compression
    Reduction in the tonal range from original scene to printed reproduction.
    • Total Area Coverage
    Total of the dot percentages of the process colors in the final film. Abbreviated for TAC. Also called density of tone, maximum density, shadow saturation, total dot density and total ink coverage.
    • Touch Plate
    Plate that accents or prints a color that four-color process printing cannot reproduce well enough or at all. Also called kiss plate.
    • Trap
    To print one ink over another or to print a coating, such as varnish, over an ink. The first liquid traps the second liquid. See also Dry Traps and Wet Traps.
    • Undercolor Addition
    Technique of making color separations that increases the amount of cyan, magenta or yellow ink in shadow areas. Abbreviated UCA.
    • Undercolor Removal
    Technique of making color separations such that the amount of cyan, magenta and yellow ink is reduced in midtone and shadow areas while the amount of black is increased. Abbreviated UCR.
    • Unsharp Masking
    Technique of adjusting dot size to make a halftone or separation appear sharper (in better focus) than the original photo or the first proof. Also called edge enhancement and peaking.
    • Up
    Term to indicate multiple copies of one image printed in one impression on a single sheet. "Two up" or "three up" means printing the identical piece twice or three times on each sheet.
    • Vellum Finish
    Somewhat rough, toothy finish.
    • Vignette
    Decorative design or illustration fade to white.
    • Vignette Halftone
    Halftone whose background gradually and smoothly fades away. Also called degrade
    • VOC
    Abbreviation for volatile organic compounds, petroleum substances used as the vehicles for many printing inks.
    • Wash Up
    To clean ink and fountain solutions from rollers, fountains, screens, and other press components.
    • Web Break
    Split of the paper as it travels through a web press, causing operators to rethread the press.
    • Web Gain
    Unacceptable stretching of paper as it passes through the press.
    • Web Press
    Press that prints from rolls of paper, usually cutting it into sheets after printing. Also called reel-fed press. Web presses come in many sizes, the most common being mini, half, three quarter (also called 8-pages) and full (also called 16-pages).
    • Wet Trap
    To print ink or varnish over wet ink, as compared to dry trap.
    Information Link


    Finally, I researched into printing on tissue paper after being inspired by the tissue paper money that I brought to the session as a print example. I was intrigued by the print as the ink had not bled through to the other side of the tissue paper, which would usually happen using most print techniques. Moreover, I think that the technique holds value as printed tissues could be used within restaurant branding.

    After browsing the internet I found numerous sites outlining how the technique can be quite easily done at home, non-commercially. The trick is to use a laser printer to prevent the inks from running through the tissue, which should be tautly taped to a piece of paper. 

    Both black and white and full colour images can be produced using the technique.


    At the end of the session we were given a short task to complete for next lesson. The task asked us to collect five examples of logos and/or branding work and note down why we find the logo appealing. 

    Below are my examples;

    • The creative illustration caught my eye, cleverly communicates company name through imagery.
    • The clean sans-serif font is easily legible.
    • Colours are calming.
    • The composition is well balanced. 

    • Logo created for a womans clothing company, this is reflected with the script typeface selected. 
    • Elegant, engaging typography used to grab viewers attention.
    • Creative use of the joining 'I' & 'S' gives the logo a nice flow, this is further highlighted by the arrow that flows through the type.
    • The logo has a classy look which appeals to the target audience.

    • Logo cleverly adapts the vertex of the W to create the top of a water droplet, the symbol is simply finished with two subtle strokes.
    • The logo is engaging due to the creative illustration.
    • The logo has a clean corporate feel insinuated by the formal colour choice and serif typeface.

    • This logo is effective due to its clever adaptation of the typography, the letters have been altered to form an image of a bison. 
    • I think this is an interesting logo as the companies name would still be communicated from a distance, despite if the type is legible or not. 

    • My final logo has been designed for 'Habitat' and environmentally friendly skateboard company.
    • The color green reflects the companies ideologies due to its association with nature and sustainability.
    • The logo also contrasts the green feel of the logo with the black type, which reminds me of an urban landscape, this holds relevance to the environment in which the sport takes place.
    • Simple vectors used to symbolize trees/nature.

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